The tables, figures and maps in this handbook represent extractions from or analytical summaries of datasets contained in the UNCTADstat data portal, available at:

UNCTADstat is continuously updated and enhanced, thus providing users with the latest available data. Consequently, the figures from this handbook, which presents statistics at a point in time, may not always correspond with the latest figures in UNCTADstat.

Basic information on concepts, definitions and calculation methods of the presented data are provided in the boxes titled “Concepts and definitions” in each section and in annex 6.3 of this handbook. More detailed information on the sources and methods used for production of data available in UNCTADstat can be found in the documentation attached to the respective UNCTADstat dataset (UNCTAD, 2020a).

Where the designation “economy” appears, it refers to a country, territory or area. The assignment of economies to specific groups is done for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding the political or other affiliation of these economies by the United Nations. Likewise, the designations “developing”, “transition” and “developed” are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular economy in the development process.

Unless otherwise specified, the values of groups of economies represent the sums of the values of the individual economies included in the group. Calculation of these aggregates may take into account data estimated by the UNCTAD secretariat that are not necessarily reported separately. In cases in which an insufficient number of data points are available within a group of economies, no aggregation is undertaken and the symbol (-) is assigned.

Due to rounding, values do not necessarily add up exactly to their corresponding totals.

United States dollars (US$) are expressed in current United States dollars of the year to which they refer, unless otherwise specified. “Ton” means metric ton (1 000 kg).

Due to space constraints, the names of the following countries may appear in abbreviated form: the Plurinational State of Bolivia, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the Federated States of Micronesia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.

The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2020 is available in PDF format from the UNCTAD website, at