High product concentration of exports in petroleum exporting economies
Terms of trade for LLDCs and LDCs in Africa and Haiti improved by 10% in 2017
High, yet decreasing market concentration of manufacturing exports
Trade openness declining fastest in developing economies of Asia and Oceania
Product concentration index of exports, 2017
Economies

    Note: This index measures the extent to which a large share of exports is accounted for by a small number of product groups. The index has a value of 1 when an economy exports only one group of products and a value of 0 if all product groups are equally represented.

    Find the data on UNCTADstat

    How concentrated was the structure of exports?

    In 2017, the highest concentration of product exports was recorded by the main petroleum exporting economies in Africa and Central and Western Asia as well as for several economies with strong reliance on the extraction of minerals, such as Botswana, Zambia and Mali. The exports of developed economies and of developing economies in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia were more diversified.

    How did the prices of exports and imports develop?

    For transition economies, landlocked developing countries (LLDCs) and LDCs in Africa and Haiti, the relative price of exports to imports increased by around 10 per cent in 2017, after four to five years of decline. By contrast, for Asian LDCs and for developing economies as a whole, the terms of trade remained almost unchanged.

    Figure 1Terms of trade index (2000=100)

    Note: This index indicates by how much the relative price between exports and imports has increased in relation to the base year.

    How concentrated is global product supply?

    Of the different product groups, the supply of manufactured goods is the most unequally distributed among economies of the world. This is indicated by a market concentration index of 0.19 in 2017, compared with index values of between 0.12 and 0.15 for exports of food, agricultural raw materials, ores, metals, precious stones, non-monetary gold and fuels. It is noteworthy that the market concentration of manufactured goods exports fell over the last two years, after a continuous increase from 2004 to 2015.

    Figure 2Market concentration index of exports

    Note: This index measures the extent to which a high proportion of exports are delivered by a small number of economies. It has a value of 1 if all exports originate from a single economy.

    How important is trade for economies?

    Over the last ten years, in developing and transition economies, international trade in goods has significantly lost importance in relation to domestic production. Developing economies in Asia and Oceania showed a particularly strong decline in the ratio of exports and imports to gross domestic product (GDP), indicated by a fall in the trade openness index from 35 to 25 per cent between 2007 and 2017. Nevertheless, in 2017 their exposure to trade was still high compared with other groups of developing economies and with transition and developed economies.

    Figure 3Trade openness index (Percentage)

    Note: This index measures the relative importance of international trade in goods relative to the domestic economic output of an economy. Exports are given equal weight to imports.

    Summary tables

    Table 1

    Selected trade indices by group of economies

    (2000=100)

    Developing economies

    Year

    Volumea

    Purchasing
    power
    of exportsb

    Terms of
    tradec

    Imports

    Exports

    2007

    185

    184

    193

    105

    2012

    238

    221

    237

    107

    2016

    260

    239

    257

    107

    2017

    279

    252

    271

    108

    Developing economies: Africa

    Year

    Volumea

    Purchasing
    power
    of exportsb

    Terms of
    tradec

    Imports

    Exports

    2007

    194

    131

    199

    152

    2012

    265

    125

    242

    193

    2016

    277

    111

    174

    157

    2017

    282

    114

    192

    169

    a
    This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
    b
    This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
    c
    See note, figure 1 above.

    Developing economies: America

    Year

    Volumea

    Purchasing
    power
    of exportsb

    Terms of
    tradea

    Imports

    Exports

    2007

    151

    130

    165

    127

    2012

    184

    136

    194

    143

    2016

    174

    144

    175

    121

    2017

    182

    150

    189

    126

    Developing economies: Asia and Oceania

    Year

    Volumea

    Purchasing
    power
    of exportsb

    Terms of
    tradec

    Imports

    Exports

    2007

    194

    206

    200

    97

    2012

    250

    260

    247

    95

    2016

    283

    289

    285

    99

    2017

    306

    305

    300

    98

    a
    This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
    b
    This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
    c
    See note, figure 1 above.

    Transition economies

    Year

    Volumea

    Purchasing
    power
    of exportsb

    Terms of
    tradea

    Imports

    Exports

    2007

    324

    173

    255

    147

    2012

    374

    179

    308

    172

    2016

    285

    183

    210

    115

    2017

    323

    191

    243

    127

    Developed economies

    Year

    Volumea

    Purchasing
    power
    of exportsb

    Terms of
    tradec

    Imports

    Exports

    2007

    129

    129

    128

    99

    2012

    126

    132

    126

    95

    2016

    137

    141

    140

    99

    2017

    141

    145

    144

    99

    a
    This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
    b
    This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
    c
    See note, figure 1 above.
    Table 2

    Selected trade indices, landlocked developing countries

    (2000=100)

    Economy

    Volumea

    Purchasing
    power
    of exportsb

    Terms of
    tradec

    Imports

    Exports

    2012

    2017

    2012

    2017

    2012

    2017

    2012

    2017

    Afghanistan

    437

    418

    123

    201

    177

    339

    144

    169

    Armenia

    273

    327

    219

    395

    265

    525

    121

    133

    Azerbaijan

    503

    485

    534

    474

    1 058

    562

    198

    118

    Bhutan

    291

    349

    215

    272

    267

    330

    124

    121

    Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

    243

    198

    275

    286

    474

    246

    172

    86

    Botswana

    221

    166

    153

    166

    128

    145

    84

    87

    Burkina Faso

    330

    425

    406

    645

    589

    946

    145

    147

    Burundi

    285

    344

    98

    145

    150

    231

    153

    159

    Central African Republic

    133

    166

    84

    53

    61

    43

    73

    80

    Chad

    518

    405

    687

    356

    1 538

    480

    224

    135

    Eswatini

    87

    88

    100

    114

    104

    126

    104

    111

    Ethiopia

    540

    854

    245

    314

    340

    439

    139

    140

    Kazakhstan

    547

    390

    251

    229

    584

    368

    233

    161

    Kyrgyzstan

    465

    461

    140

    150

    179

    199

    128

    133

    Lao People's Dem. Rep.

    304

    645

    358

    874

    366

    894

    102

    102

    Lesotho

    203

    189

    363

    419

    279

    339

    77

    81

    Malawi

    247

    300

    176

    139

    174

    163

    99

    117

    Mali

    225

    347

    137

    190

    247

    330

    181

    174

    Mongolia

    515

    395

    201

    358

    384

    648

    191

    181

    Nepal

    162

    326

    66

    58

    48

    47

    72

    80

    Niger

    269

    289

    146

    158

    286

    243

    197

    154

    Paraguay

    371

    411

    222

    318

    241

    308

    109

    97

    Republic of Moldova

    384

    483

    353

    518

    262

    399

    74

    77

    Rwanda

    630

    610

    375

    795

    651

    1 486

    174

    187

    Tajikistan

    246

    213

    89

    81

    76

    79

    86

    98

    TFYR of Macedonia

    145

    206

    160

    253

    141

    239

    88

    95

    Turkmenistan

    355

    241

    171

    145

    422

    201

    247

    139

    Uganda

    217

    238

    289

    392

    322

    471

    112

    120

    Uzbekistan

    273

    321

    142

    164

    244

    263

    172

    161

    Zambia

    545

    626

    294

    312

    577

    584

    196

    187

    Zimbabwe

    104

    110

    86

    100

    88

    111

    103

    111

    a
    This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
    b
    This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
    c
    See note, figure 1 above.
    Find the data on UNCTADstat