Transition and African developing economies have narrowest range of export products.
Terms of trade of developing economies have improved by 17% since 2000.
The global supply of agricultural products has become less concentrated over the last 15 years.
Trade openness is declining in developing and transition economies
Product concentration index of exports, 2016

Note: This index measures the extent to which a large share of exports is accounted for by a small number of product groups. The index has a value of 1 when an economy exports only one group of products and a value of 0 if all product groups are equally represented.

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How concentrated was the structure of exports?

In 2016, in African developing economies and transition economies, merchandise exports were generally more concentrated on fewer product groups than elsewhere. The export structure of European economies was comparatively dispersed. All in all, the geographic distribution of the product concentration index appears correlated with the distribution of mainly fuel exporting economies (see Trade structure by product page).

How did the prices of exports and imports develop?

From 2000 to 2016, the terms of trade – the ratio between the prices of exports and imports – remained almost constant in developed economies and increased slightly and steadily (by 17 per cent) in developing ones. LDCs in Africa and Haiti and transition economies registered decreasing terms of trade over the last four years.

Figure 1Terms of trade index (2000=100)

Note: This index indicates by how much the relative price between exports and imports has increased in relation to the base year.

How concentrated is global product supply?

The degree to which a large proportion of world exports originate from a small number of economies differs considerably across product groups. Exports of manufactured goods are more cumulated among few suppliers than other types of products, as indicated by a relatively high market concentration index, standing at 0.20 in 2016. This is due to an increase of the index from 2004 to 2015. In the same period the market concentration indices of food and agricultural raw materials fell.

Figure 2Market concentration index of exports

Note: This index measures the extent to which a high proportion of exports are delivered by a small number of economies. It has a value of 1 if all exports originate from a single economy.

How important is trade for economies?

Over the last ten years, the importance of trade in goods relative to domestic economic output has declined significantly in developing and transition economies. In developing economies, trade openness, measured as the ratio between the average of exports and imports of goods to GDP, fell from 31 per cent in 2006 to 22 per cent in 2016. In transition economies the rate decreased from 27 to 22 per cent. Trade openness of developed economies has been comparatively low. After a peak around the year 2011, in 2016 the rate amounted to 19 per cent, the same level as in 2006.

Figure 3Trade openness index (Percentage)

Note: This index measures the relative importance of international trade in goods relative to the domestic economic output of an economy. Exports are given equal weight to imports.

Summary tables

Table 1

Selected trade indices by group of economies

(2000=100)

Developing economies

Year

Volumea

Purchasing
power
of exportsb

Terms of
tradec

Imports

Exports

2006

179

179

177

108

2011

234

256

228

115

2015

266

295

252

118

2016

274

298

255

117

Developing economies: Africa

Year

Volumea

Purchasing
power
of exportsb

Terms of
tradec

Imports

Exports

2006

146

193

184

143

2011

163

291

222

192

2015

198

388

180

163

2016

205

371

170

154

a
This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
b
This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
c
See note, figure 1 above.

Developing economies: America

Year

Volumea

Purchasing
power
of exportsb

Terms of
tradea

Imports

Exports

2006

130

142

152

128

2011

149

203

190

154

2015

168

213

172

129

2016

172

204

173

127

Developing economies: Asia and Oceania

Year

Volumea

Purchasing
power
of exports b

Terms of
tradec

Imports

Exports

2006

194

186

183

101

2011

264

264

239

102

2015

298

305

279

109

2016

307

313

284

109

a
This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
b
This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
c
See note, figure 1 above.

Transition economies

Year

Volumea

Purchasing
power
of exportsb

Terms of
tradea

Imports

Exports

2006

164

267

227

142

2011

189

384

301

169

2015

197

300

226

125

2016

194

322

209

118

Developed economies

Year

Volumea

Purchasing
power
of exportsb

Terms of
tradec

Imports

Exports

2006

124

127

122

100

2011

132

129

126

99

2015

142

138

135

100

2016

144

142

139

102

a
This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
b
This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
c
See note, figure 1 above.
Table 2

Selected trade indices, landlocked developing countries

(2000=100)

Economy

Volumea

Purchasing
power
of exportsb

Terms of
tradec

Imports

Exports

2011

2016

2011

2016

2011

2016

2011

2016

Afghanistan

105

185

307

382

152

299

145

161

Armenia

200

356

265

267

256

438

128

123

Azerbaijan

573

497

482

504

1 098

497

192

100

Bhutan

241

284

298

364

327

324

136

114

Bolivia (Plurinational State of)

226

279

300

196

471

241

209

86

Botswana

151

202

200

198

126

185

84

91

Burkina Faso

446

562

217

368

634

814

142

145

Burundi

85

98

286

289

139

152

164

155

Central African Republic

74

44

126

191

56

34

76

77

Chad

690

515

598

467

1 506

588

218

114

Ethiopia

231

302

399

935

335

427

145

141

Kazakhstan

242

214

432

348

565

288

233

135

Kyrgyzstan

143

136

345

400

175

166

122

122

Lao People's Dem. Rep.

310

668

238

571

351

654

113

98

Lesotho

447

360

192

173

329

306

74

85

Malawi

203

162

251

262

207

192

102

119

Mali

118

167

207

267

217

286

184

171

Mongolia

202

356

525

337

440

567

218

159

Nepal

66

55

153

298

48

47

72

85

Niger

133

149

304

330

242

232

182

156

Paraguay

237

238

316

283

204

253

86

106

Republic of Moldova

351

457

378

401

266

335

76

73

Rwanda

272

530

549

724

503

945

185

178

Swaziland

93

89

91

82

102

105

110

118

Tajikistan

68

76

205

345

69

67

101

89

TFYR of Macedonia

173

217

150

187

151

210

88

97

Turkmenistan

147

263

271

286

331

320

226

122

Uganda

241

350

200

226

292

429

121

122

Uzbekistan

153

165

236

313

286

261

187

158

Zambia

262

268

437

551

545

451

208

169

Zimbabwe

72

72

102

106

78

78

109

109

a
This index indicates the change in exports or imports, adjusted for the movement of prices, relative to the base year.
b
This index indicates the change in exports, valuated in prices of imports, relative to the base year.
c
See note, figure 1 above.
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